How are these background created?

by user2440943   Last Updated March 11, 2017 11:18 AM

I've been following a biologist and photographer for a while, and it always strikes me, how visually pleasing his images are because the background always complements the subject very well.

Question 1: How are the backgrounds-colors in all of these images, so perfectly complementary to the subject-colors? Is digital manipulation involved?

Question 2: Is the unusual texture of the background natural?

Question 3: Is it possible that gels are involve in the creation of such complementary colors?

Context for Question 2: Most macro lenses peak at f2.8, I've never obtained such a beautiful and smooth background even at this aperture.

Images in question

The following images are the intellectual property of Paul Bertner. Image 1

Image 2

Image 3

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